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Presentations by Shibley Rahman at the Alzheimer Europe conference 2014 on autonomy and dignity

This year’s Alzheimer Europe conference is on ‘Autonomy and dignity’ between 20-22 October 2014.

I think it is timely that this conference is taking place at this important stage of the development of English national policy.

The direction of travel is a fully integrated health and care system, where people are signposted to information quickly and can make appropriate decisions.

The person living with dementia must come first; but we are also moving to a situation where a number of different people, such as friends, family, unpaid caregivers, paid carers, social care practitioners or nurses, might help to influence a personal care plan.

Ideally, a person living with dementia will be given in the future good care and support, in accordance to his or her known wishes, from the point at which a correct diagnosis is made.

Autonomy is part of the medical construct for ethical behaviour; beneficence, justice and non-maleficence are critical too.

With the ideal of autonomy, it’s vital that no ‘coercion’ takes place for people with dementia who are able to make autonomous decisions.

There should never be an illusion of people living with dementia where they are able to make decisions, when those decisions are clearly made on their behalf.

Dignity is pivotal to all dementia policy in England, and the law must be robust in safeguarding vulnerable people too.

I am looking forward to presenting two posters on language and the perception of #G7 dementia.

I am also privileged in that I have been chosen to present one of the few oral presentations. I am doing on this on the future of healthcare systems for dementia in England, arguing that policy aims, in particular universality and equity of access, will not be satisfied from a private insurance market.

I will be joined by my close friends Jayne Goodrick and Chris Roberts.

[photo by kind permission of Chris R]

J and C

Please feel free to consider the research I’ll be presenting on behalf of myself, Kate Swaffer (living with a dementia and student at the University of Wollongong), Dr Peter Gordon (Consultant Psychiatrist), Simona Florio (Healthy Living Club, Stockwell), and Prof Facundo Manes (Chair of Behavioural Neurology, University of Favorolo, Buenos Aires; Co-Chair for research in dementia and aphasias for the World Federation of Neurology).

 

Private markets vs universality (oral presentation)

Future dementia care

Language used in media presentation of the main #G7dementia event held in London

Language

 

Perceived functions of #G7dementia

G8

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Wattle's innovative program for people living with dementia – Australia

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Living with dementia

Thanks to @KateSwaffer.

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The time is now right to promote specialist nurses in 'dementia friendly communities'

There was a time when the GP used to be at the heart of a person’s community, as well as ‘delivering care’. For some people, there is no such thing as society, and the community consists of high street brands, banks and services (such as police or fire).

I’ve spent some time thinking about the implementation of the ‘dementia friendly community’ policy in a number of jurisdictions. It really has struck me how, for whatever political reasons, nurses are not perceived to be the heart of dementia friendly communities in England.

This, I feel, is a great tragedy. I don’t deny there are about a hundred different causes of a dementia, people’s social circumstances will differ (it is not uncommon for a female widower to develop a dementia while very lonely), cultural differences exist (for example in the rôle of the family in those of an Asian background), there are different rates of progression, and so on.

On receiving a diagnosis, I think support services in dementia should be much stronger than now. What is all too commonplace is a travesty. People don’t know where to turn to for basic information about clinical aspects, or wider aspects about living in the community.

As the dementia progresses, in the later stages, a focus will be to keep the person out of hospital wherever possible. Clearly, support and care in the community need to be funded properly.

A ‘crisis’ for a person living with dementia is where a ‘stressor’ causes that person no longer to be able to cope with living in his or her usual environment. There could be a number of causes of that, but it’s noteworthy that many of them are in fact medical. I disagree a specialist nurse in dementia is necessarily a job for a community psychiatry nurse (“CPN”), as the workload of such nurses tends to be very big.

But seeing a rôle for a CPN is not a trivial one, as I’m a fully signed up devotee of ‘parity of esteem’ where mental health is not seen as the ugly sister of physical health. For that matter, social work practitioners, who often find themselves at the heart of mental capacity decisions and safeguarding issues, should be on an equal footing too with other professionals.

I said to Chris, a friend of mine living well with dementia recently, “GPs will even be in a good position to coordinate information”.

I was in fact repeating words from a GP.

Chris, “So why don’t they?”

In certain respects, in designing a system you wouldn’t wish to start from here.

Without the focus on ‘budgets’ which do not necessarily deliver the ‘right kind’ of choice for the person with the health and care matters, it’s important that people with dementia have rights to a personal care plan, which is responsive to that person’s needs in real time. Knowing someone’s background is particularly essential in people with Alzheimer’s disease where longer term memories may be more intact. Knowing someone as a person is of course at the heart of personhood, through maybe a ‘life story’.

I don’t think it should be a ‘luxury’ of people with dementia following them after diagnosis through the system. I think, in fact, it should be an essential aspiration. It’s really important that somebody can cross off inappropriate medications, such as perhaps antipsychotics, on a drug chart if the person with dementia might not benefit.

It might help if a dementia specialist companion could spot problems in overmedicated people for blood pressure, for example. These individuals might become at risk of falls (and subsequent bone fractures if living with osteoporosis). Or somebody may be developing constipation or a stinging urine, becoming acutely confused. Dementia is not simply caused by conditions of old age, but frail individuals can do particularly bad when coming into contact with hospitals.

In the scenario that a person with dementia at any stage does need to go into hospital, it would help enormously if there could be continuity of care between the community and hospital. People with all types of dementia can find unfamiliarity, in people and environments, extremely mentally distressing, and this can be detrimental to their physical health (taking a whole person care approach). There are few people better than paid carers, with pay above the national minimum wage, and not on zero hour contracts, and unpaid caregivers including friends and family, to inform on these care plans, but the person living with dementia is the one for whom the plan is being designed.

All staff clearly need to be informed and skilled about dementia, and it is vital that resources are put aside for the adequate training of the workforce. The workforce themselves want this.

It won’t be a surprise to you to learn that I see specialist nurses in prime position to offer a huge deal to the implementation of whole person care for dementia from the next Government?

I think my views are broadly consistent with a number of places. A number of reports across jurisdictions have been important in establishing the direction of travel for acute hospital care: e.g. “Dementia care in the acute hospital setting: issues and strategies: a report for Alzheimer’s Australia” (Alzheimer’s Australia, June 2014), “Spotlight on dementia care: a Health Foundation Improvement Report” (Health Foundation, October 2011), and the Royal College of Nursing’s report “Commitment to the care of people with dementia in hospital settings” (RCN, January 2013).

Examples of appropriate clinical leads, as the RCN themselves recognise, are “Admiral nurses” from the charity @DementiaUK, Alzheimer Scotland dementia specialist nurses, dementia champions in Scotland, and ward champions. Merely having ‘dementia advisors’ will be a case of the bland and ill informed leading the bland, on the other hand.

Like many other ‘once in a lifetime opportunities’, if we get this right the service could be vastly improved. I am confident that, if given the proper funding to make this happen, and strong leadership cascades downwards, the next Government will rise to this challenge.

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Trivialising dementia – too much inappropriate rocking of the boat?

When I wrote my highly successful book, “Living well with dementia”, using the phrase deliberately from the 2009 English dementia strategy document for England, I never knew the phrase was being bastardised so much for often very trivial initiatives in dementia.

On the other hand, I had huge delight in seeing its immediate relevance to a carers’ support group I went to last week.

I feel deeply hurt that the serious issues in my book, such as advocacy for mental capacity, the presentation of the cognitive neurology of the dementias, or the use of ambient-assisted technology have not been widely discussed amongst the wider community.

In that, I feel the book has failed.

I welcome proposals for the next Government to maximise money into actual service, and to re-establish health funding in line with other comparator countries.

Commissioning in dementia is now not based on what is best for the person for the person with dementia, but what is best for your Twitter commissioner friends.

I look forward to the Health and Wellbeing Boards playing a pivotal rôle in establishing some sort of normality for what commissioning in living well with dementia might be as a value-based outcome.

The strangehold of “shiny”, “off the shelf” “innovative packages”, in the drive for the current Government to ‘liberalise’ the financial market in dementia has acted for a cover for disturbing, unacceptable cuts in dementia service provision in the last few years.

I remember ‘boat rocking’ the first time around from the elegant work of Prof Debra Meyerson.

I do not wish to promote frontline professionals, many of whom have spent seven years at least at medical school or in their nursing training, to become lambs to the slaughter in the modern NHS and social care.

Keeping it real, we know that real frontline professionals in medicine and social care, even if they are not in a downright toxic environment requiring whistleblowing, can find it dangerous being risk appetitive.

Indeed, being risk appetitive, while great for innovation and leadership, can literally be deadly for patient safety.

The next Government has enough on its hands with enforcing care home standards and sanctioning for offences against the national minimum wage for paid carers as it is.

We have to think for a second for the vast army of paid workers in the NHS, as well as the rather well paid people who like their shiny new boxes, I feel.

The schism between the social media and what is happening at service level I think is most alarming, and perhaps symptomatic about how the health and social care services have begun to work in reality.

All too often, I am having first hand experience of busy frontline nurses being dragged in front of entrepreneurs in their local dementia economy to hear shills beginning, “I don’t have first hand experience of caring in dementia, but…”, before the hard sell.

This is tragically being reflected on the world stage too, though I do anticipate that the G7 legacy event from Japan which is looking carefully at their experience with care and support post diagnosis, next year, will be brilliant.

It is important for leaders in dementia to have authenticity.

I have severe doubts and misgivings about what gives the World Dementia Envoy the appropriate background and training in dementia for him to be in this important post.

It is all too easy for ‘thought leaders’ in corporate-like medical charities to have no formal qualifications or training in medicine, nursing, or social care, and opine nonetheless about weighty issues to do with policy.

I am concerned that the global ‘dementia friendly communities’ policy plank appears to have been straightjacketed through one charity in England, when it is patently obvious that various other charities such as the Joseph Rowntree Foundation have made a powerful contribution.

The media have largely not engaged in a discussion about living well with dementia, but engaged simply with Dementia Friends or a story arising out of that.

I am alarmed about the lack of plurality in the dementia research sector.

I think the All Party Parliamentary Group (“APPG”) for dementia have done some valuable work, but their lack of momentum on specialist nurses including Admiral nurses, spearheaded by the charity Dementia UK, seriously offends me.

I am sick of how the notion of ‘involvement’ of people with dementia has been abused in service provision mostly, although I am encouraged very much by initiatives such as from DEEP and Innovations in Dementia.

I think there have been genuine improvements in engaging people with dementia in research, through a body of work faithfully peer-reviewed in the Dementia Journal looking at heavy issues such as the meaning of real consent.

I am now going to draw the line of tokenistic involvement of people with dementia to front projects without any meaningful inclusion.

And in fairness, this tokenistic involvement is, I am aware, happening in various jurisdictions, not just England.

All too often, “co-production” has become code for ‘exploitation’ rather than ‘active partnership’.

The prevalence of dementia is actually falling in England, it is now thought.

The ‘dementia challenge’ was our challenge to making sure that we adequately safeguarded against people rent seeking from dementia since 2012.

In that, I think we have spectacularly failed.

I am overall very encouraged, however, with the success of the huge amount of work which has been done, including from the highly influential Alzheimer’s Society, and from the communitarian activism of “The Purple Angels”.

All this ‘radicalism’ has taken on a rather ugly, conformist twang.

radicalism

Now is though time to ‘take stock’, as Baroness Sally Greengross, the current chair of the APPG on dementia, herself advised, as the new England dementia strategy is being drafted ahead of the completion of the current one in March 2015.

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Meeting the needs of persons with younger onset dementia and their supporters

There are many different types of dementia. I happen to believe it’s possible to live well with dementia.

That’s why I wished to travel to Robertsbridge from London Charing Cross to see Charmaine and family, and to give her a copy of my book which I had promised her.

Charmaine and my book

“Living well with dementia” is also the name of the current (five year) dementia strategic framework for England, which is about to be renewed.

The ‘behavioural variant’ of frontotemporal dementia is normally a dementia which occurs in younger people (below the age of 65), with quite a subtle progressive change in behaviour and personality noticed by others.

Early on, in this condition, problems in short term memory and new learning are not in fact common, leading many persons with this dementia to score very highly on the MMSE screening test.

Meanwhile, the ‘temporal variant’ of frontotemporal dementia encompasses several different subtypes.

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA), one of these subtypes, is a language disorder that involves changes in the ability to speak, read, write and understand what others are saying. It is usually acknowledged to be properly described by Mesulam.

Problems with memory, reasoning, and judgment are not thought to be usually apparent at first, but can develop over time.

It is associated with a disease process that causes atrophy in the frontal and temporal areas of the brain, and is distinct from aphasia resulting from a stroke.

In 2011, criteria were adopted for the classification of PPA into three clinical subtypes: nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA, semantic variant PPA and logopenic variant/phonological PPA.

Therefore the frontotemporal dementias are not usually, early on, characterised by problems in memory for events and facts.

PPA speech not memory

PPA can, as it progresses, be accompanied with anxious behaviours manifest as obsessive-compulsions.

The ‘Dementia Research Centre’ (part of University College London, to which the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and Institute of Neurology are associated or attached) hosts a number of superb support groups.

The PPA Support Group holds a number of support groups at regular time intervals. Their newsletter from August 2014 is here.

The convener is  Jill Walton, at jill.walton@ftdsg.org.

I attended yesterday’s meeting.

My close #Twitter pal Charmaine, @charbhardy (Charmaine Hardy), invited me down to Robertsbridge, East Sussex, for Wednesday September 17 2014 from 12 noon to 2pm.

Charmaine

Charmaine describes herself as “I’m a carer to a husband with PPA dementia.”

Of course, Charmaine, her husband and me were in attendance as part of this impressive group of twelve delegates.

Charmaine also claims “Love my garden I post too many pics.” I disagree though on the latter half – Charmaine never posts too many pics of her garden. Here is a photograph I took of a very beautiful flower of hers.

Flower

This is in fact the pergola Charmaine’s husband built with Paul.

Pergola

The meeting was held in one of the venue rooms at The Ostrich Hotel (“The Ostrich”), Station Road, Robertsbridge, East Sussex, T 32 5DJ.

The Ostrich is an outstanding B&B housed in a gorgeous Victorian location, with a spectacular tropical garden.

Exotic garden

I had the pleasure of sampling a delicious supper with Charmaine and her husband.

Food

Our couple of hours yesterday was an informal meeting for people affected by a diagnosis of PPA, their family and friends. We all thought the meeting was fantastic.

Jill showed a video for teaching purposes of what the language presentations of dementia, including PPA, are broadly like.

We all participated in an activity where we had to express the meaning of a sentence without using any of the words, e.g. “Part of my leg is hot and painful.” It was difficult!

The meeting was very enjoyable, but we were able to discuss many issues.

We discussed how the diagnosis of dementia could mean a contraction of your friends’ network, leading to loneliness.

We also discussed how greater education of what the dementias are would help to overcome stigma and discrimination against people living with dementia.

Overall, the feeling of the group was each person living with dementia must be treated with dignity as an unique individual with a significant past and present.

We also felt that the ‘one glove fits all’ approach of housing and accommodation doesn’t work, and forcing people with dementia into accommodation solutions they’re not happy with is bound to cause distress.

This can be a particular problem with younger patients with dementia, who wish to lead independent lives as long as possible, not wishing to be forced into an old people’s home.

If a younger person who receives a diagnosis of dementia it can be challenging to deal with your employer; the construct of ‘dementia friendly communities’, which is said to promote inclusivity, cannot adequately protect against unlawful discrimination if people are not aware of their legal rights and have inadequate access to justice.

PPA also has particular resonance in English policy as a noteworthy example of a younger onset dementia. A ‘younger onset dementia’ refers to a dementia which occurs before 65.

This cut-off is completely arbitrary, however (as arbitrary as the “retirement age”).

Younger onset dementia is a distinct group of people living with dementia, because the conditions which cause these dementias tend to be late presentations of “young” conditions or early presentations of “old” conditions.

In theory, the ‘younger onset dementia’ label is inaccurate, in that a dementia might start long before the symptomatic presentation of people with dementia. At one extreme, some people with the very rare genetic presentations of dementia are born with their dementias (or indeed have the genetic make-up in utero.)

It is therefore clear that we need a much greater sophistication in responding to the needs, beliefs, concerns and expectations of people with younger onset dementia.

The unique identity of people with younger onset dementia means that they have distinct research and service provision needs.

This is particularly true as some of the younger onset dementia can be accompanied by obvious movement and psychiatric symptoms, such as forms of prion disease (GSS and CJD) or Huntington’s disease.

A longstanding problem with the organisation of services is that mental illness problems have traditionally played ‘second fiddle’ to medical problems.

This is exacerbated by the drastic cuts in social care which have relentlessly continued in the last few years.

It is hoped that some of these problems in ‘parity of esteem’ might be mitigated against through ‘whole person care’, the expected policy from May 8th 2015 to integrate health and social care properly for the first time.

I had a very nice conversation with Fiona Chaâbane from the University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust.

Fiona’s rôle there is as a clinical nurse specialist in dementia, and as a clinical coordinator for Huntington’s disease and younger onset dementia.

I am hopeful that the ‘care coordinator’ rôle will be properly fleshed out in the next government, which will see a more substantial rôle for specialist and general nurses within networks comprising ‘dementia friendly communities’.

I feel that, in many of these conditions, cognitive or psychiatric features can be prominent early on.

My concern about the misdiagnosis of these dementias which do not have a strong component of a failure of memory is a very substantial one.

A misdiagnosis (e.g. of a dementia -> non-dementia such as anxiety or depression) can not only mean that person not obtaining the proper medical treatment, but can also mean that that person goes down a clinical pathway for which he or she is not appropriate. This can also impact on that person’s life and job in an utterly destructive way, particularly more so if before retirement age.

Thanks to Jill, Charmaine, her husband and the PPA support group for educating me properly about the dementias. It was particularly helpful to me too in confirming my concerns about research and service provision for the younger onset dementias in England, unfortunately. But at least we can now all begin to address them.

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The references for chapter 1 of my book on prevention/risk factors in dementia

These are the references to Chapter 1 “Introduction”, mainly an overview of English dementia policy, prevention and risk factors, for my new book, “Living better with dementia: championing change for the future” (to be published early 2014).

 

Websites

“Call to action: the use of antipsychotics for people with dementia” http://www.institute.nhs.uk/qipp/calls_to_action/Dementia_and_antipsychotic_drugs.html

 

A letter to the Prime Minister charting progress on the Prime Minister’s Dementia Challenge (dated 7th May 2014). https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/media.dh.gov.uk/network/353/files/2014/05/10092-2902335-TSO-Dementia-Letter-to-PM-ACCESSIBLE.pdf

 

All Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on dementia. (2012) Unlocking the diagnosis: the key to improving the lives of people with dementia http://www.alzheimers.org.uk/site/scripts/download_info.php?fileID=1457 (dated June)

 

Dementia 2013: The hidden voice of lonelineness http://www.alzheimers.org.uk/dementia2013

 

Dementia Roadmap. http://dementiaroadmap.info

 

Department of Health (2012) Prime Minister’s Dementia Challenge: delivering major improvements in dementia care and research by 2015 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/215101/dh_133176.pdf

 

Making a Difference in Dementia: Nursing Vision and Strategy https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/147956/Making_a_Difference_in_Dementia_Nursing_Vision_and_Strategy.pdf

 

Memory Services National Accreditation Programme (Royal College of Psychiatrists) http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/workinpsychiatry/qualityimprovement/qualityandaccreditation/memoryservices/memoryservicesaccreditation.aspx

 

NHS Confederation website/NHS Voices blog. (2014) A people-centred response to the 2015 Challenge is vital for the future of health and care, says Jeremy Taylor, http://www.nhsconfed.org/blog/2014/06/a-people-centred-response-to-the-2015-challenge-is-vital-for-the-future-of-health-and-care

PM Challenge on dementia (Alzheimer’s Research UK) http://www.alzheimersresearchuk.org/news-detail/10688/PM-Challenge-on-Dementia-a-year-of-progress-and-new-promise-for-research/ (dated 15 May 2013)

 

Public Health England and UK Health Prevention First (2014). The Blackfriars Consensus on promoting brain health: reducing risks for dementia in the population http://nhfshare.heartforum.org.uk/RMAssets/Reports/Blackfriars%20consensus%20%20_V18.pdf (“Blackfriars Consensus Statement”)

 

Rahman, S. (2014) “It’s time we talked about ‘dementia friendly communities’” Living well with dementia blog, http://livingwelldementia.org/2014/03/25/its-time-we-talked-about-dementia-friendly-communities/ (25th March 2014).

 

Report on the prescribing of anti-psychotic drugs to people with dementia (author: Professor Banerjee) http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130107105354/http:/www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_108303 (November 2009)

 

WHO (2013) [ed. Wilkinson, R., Marmot, M.] Social determinants of health: the solid facts. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/98438/e81384.pdf

 

 

 

Other references

 

Ahlskog, J.E., Geda, Y.E., Graff-Radford, N.R., Petersen, R.C. (2011) Physical exercise as a preventive or disease-modifying treatment of dementia and brain aging, Mayo Clin Proc, 86(9), pp. 876–84.

 

Albert, M.S., DeKosky, S.T., Dickson, D., Dubois, B., Feldman, H.H., Fox, N.C,., Gamst, A., Holtzman, D.M., Jagust, W.J., Petersen, R.C., Snyder, P.J., Carrillo, M.C., Thies, B., Phelps, C.H. (2011) The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due toAlzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging–Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease, Alzheimers Dement, 7, pp. 270–9.

 

Alzheimer’s Association Expert Advisory Workgroup on NAPA (2012) Workgroup on NAPA’s scientific agenda for a national initiative on Alzheimer’s disease, Alzheimer Dement, 8, pp. 357–361.

 

Bambra, C., Gibson, M., Sowden, A., Wright, K., Whitehead, M., Petticrew, M. (2010) Tackling the wider social determinants of health and health inequalities: evidence from systematic reviews, J Epidemiol Community Health, Apr, 64(4), pp. 284-91.

 

Barberger-Gateau, P., Raffaitin, C., Letenneur, L., Berr, C., Tzourio, C., Dartigues, J.F., Alpérovitch, A. (2007) Dietary patterns and risk of dementia: the Three-City cohort study. Neurology, Nov 13, 69(20), pp. 1921-30.

 

Bennett, D.A., Schneider, J.A., Tang, Y., Arnold, S.E., Wilson, R.S. (2006) The effect of social networks on the relation between Alzheimer’s disease pathology and level of cognitive function in old people: a longitudinal cohort study, Lancet Neurol, 5(5), pp. 406–12.

 

Beydoun, M.A., Beydoun, H.A., Wang, Y. (2008) Obesity and central obesity as risk factors for incident dementia and its subtypes: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Obes Rev, 9, pp. 204–218.

 

Biessels GJ. Capitalising on modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet Neurol, Aug, 13(8), pp. 752-3.

 

Black, S.E., Patterson, C. Feightner, J. (2001) Preventing dementia, Canadian Journal of Neurology Science, 28 (Suppl 1), pp. S56–66.

 

Blackburn, D.J., Krishnan, K., Fox, L., Ballard, C., Burns, A., Ford, G.A., Mant, J., Passmore, P., Pocock, S., Reckless, J., Sprigg, N., Stewart, R., Wardlaw, J., Bath, P.M. (2013) Prevention of Decline in Cognition after Stroke Trial (PODCAST): a study protocol for a factorial randomised controlled trial of intensive versus guideline lowering of blood pressure and lipids, Trials, Nov 22, 14: 401.

 

Bond, J. (1992) The medicalization of dementia, Journal of Aging Studies, 6, 397–403.

 

Bowling, A. (2007) Aspirations for old age in the 21st century, what is successful aging? The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 64, 263–297.

 

Boyle, P.A., Buchman, A.S., Wilson, R.S., Yu, L., Schneider, J.A., Bennett, D.A. (2012) Effect of purpose in life on the relation between Alzheimer disease pathologic changes on cognitive function in advanced age, Arch Gen Psychiatry, 69(5), pp. 499– 505.

 

Brodaty, H., Howarth, G., Mant, A., Kurle, S. (1994) General practice and dementia, A national survey of Australian GPs, Medical Journal of Australia, 160, 10–14.

 

Brooker, D., La Fontaine, J., Bray, J., Evans, S. (for the University of Worcester Association of Dementia Studies) (2013), Timely diagnosis of dementia: ALCOVE WP5 Task 1 and 2.

 

Brunet M. (2014) Targets for dementia diagnoses will lead to over-diagnosis, BMJ, 348:g2224.

 

Brunnström, H., Gustafson, L., Passant, U., Englund, E. (2009) Prevalence of dementia subtypes: a 30-year retrospective survey of neuropathological reports, Arch Gerontol Geriatr, Jul Aug, 49(1), pp. 146-9.

 

Buchman, A.S., Wilson, R.S., Bienias, J.L., Shah, R.C., Evans, D.A., Bennett, D.A. (2005) Change in body mass index and risk of incident Alzheimer disease, Neurology, 65, pp. 892–897.

 

Burns, A., Robert, P. (2009) The National Dementia strategy in England, BMJ, Mar 10, 338:b931.

 

Chang, M., Jonsson, P.V., Snaedal, J., Bjornsson, S., Saczynski, J.S., Aspelund, T., Eiriksdottir, G., Jonsdottir, M.K., Lopez, O.L., Harris, T.B., Gudnason, V., Launer, L.J. (2010) The effect of midlife physical activity on cognitive function among older adults: AGES—Reykjavik study, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 65(12), pp. 1369–74.

 

Cooper, C. (2013) G8 Dementia Summit: PM pledges to double funding for research by 2025, 11 December 2013, The Independent newspaper, http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/g8-dementia-summit-pm-pledges-to-double-funding-for-research-by-2025-8996377.html

 

Crampton, J., Dean, J., Eley, R. (2012) Joseph Rowntree Foundation: Creating a dementia friendly York, http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/dementia-communities-york-full.pdf.

 

Cunningham, E.L., Passmore, A.P. (2013) Drug development in dementia, Maturitas, 76(3), pp. 260-6.

 

Daviglus, M.L., Bell, C.C., Berrettini, W., Bowen, P.E., Connolly, E.S. Jr, Cox, N.J., Dunbar-Jacob, J.M., Granieri, E.C., Hunt, G., McGarry, K., Patel, D., Potosky, A.L., Sanders-Bush, E., Silberberg, D., Trevisan, M. (2010) National institutes of health state-of-the-science conference statement: preventing Alzheimer disease and cognitive decline, Annals of Internal Medicine, August 3, 153(3), pp. 176–81.

 

De Lepeliere, J., Wind, A., Iliffe, S., Moniz-Cook, E., Wilcock, J., Gonzalez, V., Derksen, E., Gianelli, M., Vernooij-Dassen, M. the Interdem Group. (2008). The primary care diagnosis of dementia in Europe: An analysis using multi-disciplinary, multi-national expert groups, Aging & Mental Health, 12(5), 568–576.

 

Desmond, D.W., Tatemichi, T.K., Paik, M., Stern, Y. (1993) Risk factors for cerebrovascular disease as correlates of cognitive function in a stroke free cohort, Archives of Neurology, 50, pp. 162–166.

 

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